Khetri is situated at the foothills of the Aravalli Range, which hosts copper mineralization, giving rise to a 80 km long metallogenetic province from Singhana in the north to Raghunathgarh in the south, popularly known as Khetri Copper Belt. The belt comprises of tightly folded Proterozoic metasediments that rest over basement gneisses and is a part of the North Delhi fold belt. Prominent deposits of the belt are: Khetri, Kolihan, Banwas, Chandmari, Dhani Basri, Baniwali Ki Dhani (Neem Ka Thana, Rajasthan). Other deposits are: Dholamala, Akwali, Muradpura - Pacheri (Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan), and Devtalai (Bhilwara, Rajasthan).
Regular mining ceased in this area by 1872. With the advent of 20th century, the geologists of Geological Survey of India. Indian Bureau of Mines undertook explorations. Development of Khetri Mine was started by National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) and the project was handed over to HCL in 1967 when HCL was formed. Subsequently, smelting and refining facilities were added.
Khetri comprises of Khetri town and Khetrinagar. Khetri town was founded by Raja Khet Singhji Nirwan, and Khetrinagar, which is about 10 km away from Khetri town, is developed and maintained by Hindustan Copper Limited.